1. Use the gender and smoke100 pivot table (contingency table) and conduct the test for independence. Are gender and having smoked at least 100 cigarettes independent? This test requires all expected values to be at least 1, are there any cells in the theoretical table that are zero? Are all the theoretical values at least 5? If so you can make a statement about the proportions as your authors do with the gender and promotion example at the end of Chapter 1. Answer these questions using sentences and include a statement about the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis of independence. 2. Use the gender and smoke100 pivot table (contingency table) and create a tree diagram using gender as the primary branch. Click into each segment and enter brief titles and values, refer to examples in book. Tip: This template uses the Word SmartArt Graphic, Horizontal Hierarchy under the Insert menu. 3. What other variables could be reviewed for independence in this manner, the 2 rows and 2 columns case? Conduct one such analysis, state the null and alternate hypotheses and include the Excel tab copied from the template provided. State the decision and write the statement of what this decision means: if you reject or do not reject and then what this says about the two variables. Several sentences are expected for this answer along with the completed Excel sheet.